GHG measurements confirmed
Terrestrial or aquatic data
Last update

EC_Tower: 2023-12-15

ATM_Tower: 2023-12-15

Chamber: 2023-12-15

Dissolved: 2023-12-15

Airborne: 2024-03-05

How to use this application


The central element of this tool is the map, here all sites are shown.

Zoom: either use the mouse scroll button, or the + - boxes in the top left corner.
Pan: hold the map and drag.
Layers: different layers can be selected in the top right corner.

Hover: hovering the mouse over a site will show its name and site ID if available.
Select: Selecting a site shows a box with key site characteristics:
  • Site name
  • Site ID
  • Contact information
  • Years with measurements
  • Ecosystem
  • Publication

Selection controls

On the right hand pane the site selection controls can be found

Measurement Period: the range of years can be selected, it shows all the sites that have at least measured in one year in the selected period.
Total years: select sites with a total number of measurement years within the selection range.
Latitude and longitude: to make a selection (box) based on the input coordinates.
Country: select based on the location of a site (not the ownership).
Download: download the table of (selected) sites as csv within a zip folder.


The table at the bottom shows the metadata for each site, click the arrows to scroll down the list.

Ordering: The header row can be selected to sort records based on the selected variable.
Search box: The search box searches among all fields of all selected records, but can't be used to make sub selections for download or the map as with the right hand pane.
Data: The link button (if present) in the right-most column links to the actual data (not all sites have data available).

About this application

This tool maps the locations of current and historic study sites for greenhouse gas measurements from various observational platforms across the Arctic and Boreal zones. Aiming at comprehensive metadata coverage across species and platforms at high northern latitudes, the assimilated information comprises carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) measurements across five observational platforms: (1) eddy covariance towers and (2) flux chambers, both operated on terrestrial or aquatic ecosystems, aiming at resolving processes at local to landscape scales; (3) atmospheric towers and (4) airborne measurements, providing atmospheric observations that represent processes at regional to pan-Arctic scales, and (5) dissolved gas concentrations monitoring information that is available for aquatic sites.

The database consolidates basic information about location of the sites and their characteristics, measurement period, contact information, and links to scientific publications, published datasets, and repositories. The presented metadata were gathered from community surveys conducted e.g. within the context of the EU-funded INTAROS project and the ERC-synergy project Q-Arctic, extraction of information from existing databases, and literature syntheses. This mapping tool presents the results of coordinated independent efforts that were united in a workshop titled ‘Reconciling historical and contemporary trends in terrestrial carbon exchange of the northern permafrost-zone’, funded by the Arctic Data Center and supported by the Permafrost Carbon Network.

Basic characteristics

  • Study domain: Sites within the borders of the Arctic-boreal domain plus a buffer of 100 km were included in the dataset, although further sites outside of this domain were added due to their importance in overcoming regional data scarcity.
  • Land cover: We distinguish the ecosystem type represented by a study site between barren, cropland, forest, grassland, lake, ocean, reservoir, river, shrubland, tundra, urban, and wetland based on available information (from publications or input from site operators and researchers). The lake category includes ponds and puddles. The river category includes streams, ditches and canals. Where multiple ecosystem types apply to a site, we list all of them.
  • Timeframe: Datasets obtained at a specific location or area of interest studied between 1970 and present were considered.
  • Seasonality: To categorize study periods, we distinguish seasons when measurements were conducted between summer as the period of the growing season (May−October) and winter as the snow- and ice-covered season (November−April).
  • Gas species: The dataset presented here focuses on the three greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O.
  • Types of measurements: Greenhouse gas measurements in this context include the assessment of atmospheric mole fractions, as well as vertical soil-atmosphere or water-atmosphere fluxes, and concentration measurements of greenhouse gases dissolved in water.

Scientific background

The Arctic region is experiencing rapid warming, with temperatures rising nearly four times faster than the global average. This accelerated warming has profound implications for the Earth's climate system, as the Arctic plays a critical role in regulating global climate dynamics. Of particular concern is the thawing of permafrost, perennially frozen soils which are estimated to contain carbon stocks of roughly 1,700 Pg. This enormous carbon reservoir is at risk of being partially released into the atmosphere upon thaw, triggering a positive feedback loop that would further accelerate global warming. Simultaneously, ongoing warming within the high northern latitudes holds the potential to trigger substantial changes to permafrost ecosystem characteristics, including e.g. climate-induced vegetation changes that may lead to shrubification and alter greenhouse gas flux patterns.

Quantifying the current Arctic carbon budget requires a comprehensive monitoring network across the Arctic climate zone. Furthermore, to facilitate accurate projections of its future evolution based on understanding the mechanisms that control carbon cycle dynamics, more in-situ data need to be integrated into process-based models. With Arctic landscapes being highly heterogeneous across spatial scales, a large number of observation sites would be needed to resolve the pronounced variability in greenhouse gas processes. However, the vast size of the Arctic region, in combination with logistical challenges linked to harsh climate conditions and scarce infrastructure, to date has allowed to establish only comparatively sparse observational networks, leading to data gaps and limited spatial and temporal data coverage.

Suggested usage

This database is intended to support users in identifying the availability of observational data on greenhouse gases across different regions within the high northern latitudes, in order to address various questions related to high northern research sites. This service thus should make it easier to find out where and what greenhouse gas observations have been conducted, in which years and by whom, and where the collected data can be accessed.

Request for support

We very much hope you'll find this tool useful. If you do, please share it with interested colleagues, and help us to maintain and extend the underlying database:

  • Metadata correctness: if you find missing and/or incorrect information for some of the sites listed, please let us know which updates and/or corrections are required.
  • Data gaps: If you are aware of additional sites that are not yet listed, but should be included, please tell us about them.

How to cite

Correspondence to

Mathias Göckede (



Contributing authors (in alphabetical order)

Luana Basso (MPI-BGC)

Abdullah Bolek (MPI-BGC)

Gerardo Celis (Univ. Florida)

Mathias Göckede (MPI-BGC)

Kseniia Ivanova (MPI-BGC)

McKenzie Kuhn (Univ. New Hampshire)

Marguerite Mauritz (Univ. Texas El Paso)

Martijn Pallandt (Stockholm Univ.)

Mark Schlutow (MPI-BGC)

Ted Schuur (Northern Arizona Univ.)

Anna Virkkala (Woodwell Climate Research Center)

Judith Vogt (MPI-BGC)